Troy to Moses

From Troy to Beyond Moses

 

Who came first, Ódhinn the All-Father of the Germanics

or

Yahweh – the Monotheistic God of Moses?

 

Prologue

By conditioning, most of us have been given a subjective view of history that has been ingrained in us and therefore we simply accept it as being fact. When we read of the ancient conquests of the world and the empires that came from these worldly campaigns, we are intrigued and fascinated by these tales. Most of us do not give much thought to the matter that the saga, or history, we hear as a result, usually came from the victor of any conquest or as we know today’s fishing stories; embellished quite a bit.

Sometimes it is actually more important to understand what was not told in historical accounts than what was written down or committed to memory. For instance we have thousands of volumes of “historical” accounts of the European settler’s victorious “birth” of the United States, yet the many Native American Nations hold only tears in their memories of their “death” as nations. We have libraries full of the Northern and Southern viewpoint concerning the Civil War, but what of the history the African American within that history? So even in our short history as a nation we have a very jaded and opinionated view of the same set of circumstances viewed from the many sides of these events.

Many times we have seen references to one nation, king or individual making the high claim of making another people or person “die”, “as if you were never known”, “banished” or “there shall be no memory of”1 you. This, we realize from modern psychology, is probably the worse thing you can do to a person or people. We also claim in modern thinking that other’s memory of a person serves as a large part of another person’s “immortality”.

Concerning most European peoples the last great conquest of “death” was the Second World War, but I herein refer to the Roman Empire, that sought not only to enslave every person in their grasp, but also to completely blot out the memory of those whom they conquered. This was considerably easier when the conquered people kept libraries where a single torch could destroy centuries of detailed memories of a race or nation.

In Western Civilization we take for granted that anything we need to know will “always” be just a book or floppy disk away. But, we must look carefully at such people as the aboriginal in Australia and New Zealand, Native American and South Pacific peoples who to this day keep a rich verbal history alive in the minds of their youth. The Teutonic peoples of Northern Europe also kept alive a verbal history that no invader’s torch could easily make disappear.

When we read today such works as the Poetic Edda or Prose Edda, we are immediately faced with the difficulty in not only translating the works, but sufficiently understanding them as well. Though language has changed considerably over the past millennia it still seems to me that the sagas of old were impossibly hard to understand by a generally uneducated populace. We are given a complex view of the gods (especially Ódhinn) and one that appears to be overly complex for a simple agrarian/warrior society. Now I will make a subjective analysis that will bear out through some objective thinking.

Throughout the works mentioned above, we are reminded to know how to interpret runes, how to skald (speak), how to “remember” which to me is of as great importance as the specific literary works and prose. We read of Ódhinn sitting high on Hlidskjaf observing “the nine worlds” below him. I can’t help but get a picture of the Germanic nations watching what was going on far to the south as the Romans obliterated Thessalonians, Macedonian, Aegean, Egyptian, Gaul, Goth, Saxon, Frank and Celt. Wise kings to the north would have seen through pride and realized the probabilities that lay in the future.

When we are told, by Snorri in his introductions, that the Germanic peoples came from Troy, but of course “the Christian is not to believe this”2 , does this not imply that the Germanic Trother is to believe it? The kenning and metre forms and the lays and stories presented in the Eddas are certainly to be construed as historically and poetically accurate, but it is the ability to interpret them, the secret meanings in them that I feel is our passion and duty as runers. Though there are no passages in the lays that otherwise refer to any Trojan link, it raises a question within my thinking. Is this because there is no link or that the authors of the lays and prose had lost the memory of it?

Ódhinn seems to be an embodiment of a people, as much a real figure and god. His complex manifestation and the numerous references to the interpretations of his being suggest far more than a simple tale of blurred history or incomprehensible god. In the ninth and tenth centuries, with the perceivable future of annihilation by the advances of Christendom, it would seem only prudent to secure our true, living history as nothing more than what it was perceived to be by the Mother Church; fiction. This “fiction” could be easily dismissed as folk tales of an “ignorant” and “barbaric” people, but what of the true keepers of The Ódhinist Way?

Every resistance movement in history has had a code or secret language by which to smuggle truth to those who knew how to interpret the message. We are given example after example in Roman literature of the Holy Roman Church being in a foreign land to observe the sacking of the native holy sites and the clerics immediately taking possession of any written word to scrutinize and defame and destroy. Observed behavior was how the Teutonic warrior class survived for so many years.

I therefore, subjectively assert that it is quite possible that texts, that were meant to be captured, were written in scrambled prose for three reasons; 1) prose was known as a significant literary form of the time 2) the seeming nonsense was the perception of the Christian invader(s) of Norse (Germanic) mythology 3) the true elders of Ódhinist belief would have had the true history, mythology, runology and prose committed to memory.

[I, myself, as an initiate and simple runer, would consider it my duty, not only to the Yrmin-Drighten but the Rune-Gild as well, to be given up for capture by invaders from “Regis Prime” (Star Trek fiction) in High robes. Thus presenting our inevitable conquerors with a computer full of garbled nonsense about the Gild, claim it to be the true hidden meaning, and I was the chief interpreter as well! Not only would this dismiss any real concern by the invading force as to what “savage nonsense” we believed, but also, it would make certain that the true knowledge and leadership was still intact elsewhere.

It would have been obvious to the conquering armies to “smell a skunk” had prisoners of war given a different story than what had been read over by generals and clerics. It would have been impossible to teach an entire race a false story to tell their captors so the easiest method would have been to alter the written record. Thus making it sound incomprehensible, though backed by the “unwise” story telling of the Folk at large. Unfortunately this would be much more difficult today with printed books, computers and so on, but it would have been a fairly easy ploy of ten centuries ago. No one today reads fairy tales and believes them, or should we?]

What we are experiencing today is finally, a reawakening of our ability to interpret, properly, the lays, runes and sagas of our past without the need of secrecy. As well, we have at our disposal a global history that has been unavailable to us – to the degree of today – at any other time in history.

Though this has been a lengthy prologue to the main body of text I wish to present, it is through much other study in areas seemingly outside of the runes and Nordic/Germanic history that I make another observation. In our history and mythology, it is fairly easy to place a time and date on many aspects of the telling of such stories, especially those concerning the kingdoms. This was yet another enigma that always bothered me about Bible teachings. Nowhere in the Bible, by any author of a particular book, is there given any sort of timeline until well into the kingdoms of David and Solomon, yet Moses would have had a good sense of time, even if based on his Egyptian education.

Only through the post-historical system of backtracking have we learned the approximate dates and times of such people as Moses and Abraham. What stunning facts to find out their lives were millennia later than what I was taught as a child.

 

 

The Ancestral Troy

In 1870, Heinrich Schlieman began excavating ruins near modern day Hissarlik, Turkey to find the first evidence of mythical Troy. His life’s work, and those who followed him, uncovered the ruins of eight other cities around and below Troy. Once again the powerful runic number of nine comes into play! Now the Trojan War may have concluded in 1186 BCE, but this was after a ten-year siege and innumerable generations of inhabitants on the site prior to that.

By the evidence archaeologists have provided for us by their good works, the uppermost Troy has been dated at around 1300 BCE and each of the eight cities under it were occupied for between 300 and 450 years each prior to that. Even at the minimal occupancy rate of 300 years, times the eight cities, we have a span of 2400 years of occupancy prior to the building of the later Troy. This brings us to a time period of, at minimum, approximately 3700 BCE when the first inhabitants of the area settled there. Do we not also find a similarity between the first Troy, and Draupnir, the famed ring, of producing eight, an insight into the future? Was it not from Troy that eight more cities were discovered, rich in golden knowledge of our past? We also know that, customary of ancient civilizations, building city upon top of city would either carry the name of the older city or at last a very similar one. This trend carried forward for millennia, i.e.: York – New York; England – New England, etc.

We have living testimony today that Æger, the god of oceans, remains with us in the Aegean Sea. Troy, which was the gateway between the Aegean Sea and Asian trade routes, is noted in the Gylfaginning as being Asgard, the home of Ódhinn. As well, the Trojan War, by Homeric tale and other accounts by the Greeks, was fought over the return of a kidnapped goddess with a golden apple. Are we not told of Loki’s kidnapping Idunna and her golden apples? Though the Greek account called the apple “For the fairest” and the resulting story tells of Paris, king of Troy holding a beauty contest for possession of that golden apple, of which Aphrodite wins, there are basic similarities in the overall story.

The introductions to the Edda’s and the Flyting of Gylfi tell us of Thor, the progeny of Ódhinn and his son Asa-Thor and the Æsir (Asian), leaving Troy to migrate North where he would become known as a god of kings among all peoples. We have hard evidence from anthropological and archaeological sources that a great migration did in fact travel through what are now the Slavic nations into Northern Europe and Scandinavia, beginning approximately 3100 BCE. One other anthropological observation is the fact that during the early period of mankind, when migrations did occur, many cities and villages came into being along the path of those in the migration due to the disenchanted, injured and sick. These small settlements then became not only a permanent record of the path taken but also an information highway of the most literal sort. It would have been only natural for Ódhinn to send word back to Troy once his convoy settled in Northern Europe.

The written records of ancient civilizations began with a form of pictograph in about 3100 BCE by the Minoans, an early Aegean civilization, and was later developed into an “alphabet” by the Phoenicians approximately 1700 BCE. Had the Æsir left the second or third ? Troy of the 3100 BCE migration period, it is feasible they would have still carried with them the verbal, rather than written, form of poetic or saga telling, from which to tell future generations. The Minoan pictograph may even be one source of the runes.

Thus, much was happening to form our Nordic sagas long, long before the Vikings were even organized. It is also of important notation to put into perspective that at the time of the Troy migration; the great rule of Egyptian Pharaohs hadn’t even been formulated yet. The early dynastic period of the pharaohs is 2920 BCE to 2575 BCE.

 

 

 

The Moses Complex

The Egypt of Moses’ time was that of the 19th Dynasty, Seti I (1307- 1240 BCE) and Ramses II (1239 –1196 BCE). Biblical accounts tell of Moses making his plea to Ramses II and Moses was born about 1220 BCE so this would fit into the approximate captivity and later exodus timeline from Egypt.

We also know that Moses was brought into the court of the pharaoh and raised as a “son” so he would have been afforded not only the luxury of the best living conditions, but the best education as well. He would have learned to read Egyptian hieroglyphs and write the “modern” phonetic alphabets of Greek, Minoan and Agean as was needed for economic dealings. We also know that trade among the Egyptians and civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean, were not only extensive, but also profitable. Thus Moses being in his position of court would have very likely had many encounters with the eastern seamen and learned their language and sagas.

The Aegean civilizations of the day were directly on the route from Asia to the Mediterranean and would have access to the fine silks (about1600 BCE) and other finery. The ingrained legends of the All-Father Ódhinn and the various sagas concerning his exploits would have certainly been characteristic of the seafarers. Stories such as; the one true living god Ódhinn- the god of kings; and that of the creation of the earth from the “void” of Ginnungagap; the formation of Ask (Adam) and Embla (Eve) from trees or the “soil” (which trees grow from); the flood of Ymir’s blood by which all was destroyed except for Bergelmir who took his family on an ark – and so on, would have been told by the Aegean seamen. These legends would have certainly had a great influence on the theological thinking of Moses, being himself, a foreigner to the land of Egypt and their many hundreds of deities.

Having now heard of a form of monotheism with a hierarchy of lesser gods (angels) Moses would have certainly had a brain full of ideas about creation and theosophy. When Moses fled on his own, after killing an Egyptian in anger, he fled to Midian where he came into the favor of a sheepherder by the name of Jethro, by saving his daughters from robbers. Being given the daughter Zipporah as his wife, and many sheep as well, the honored father rewarded Moses. While tending his newly begotten flock, Moses came across the burning bush. Going to it, he received the instructions from God (“I am who I AM”-consecrating self unto Self) to go back to Egypt and free the Hebrews and Israelites.

Moses was quite concerned that the Israelites would not accept his word to flee so God showed him two signs. One, Moses dropped his staff and it was turned into a snake and then back into a staff. Second, he reached his hand into his cloak and when he pulled it out it was full of leprosy and was “eaten away” until he put it back inside his cloak and was healed. These are most certainly composite stories of Balder’s death by a magic (changed from one form to another) arrow; Bolverk and the mead and of that of Tyr and Fenrir. It was by these two stories that Moses convinced the Israelites to join with him and leave Egypt. Moses pled his case before Ramses II (presumably his stepfather’s successor) and won their freedom, but the pharaoh changed his mind and sent his army after the fleeing Hebrews and Israelites.

It is also known that Vulcano, a volcano site in southern Italy, erupted (it is thought to be one of the most violent eruptions in history) about 1260 BCE. This would have caused the shallow coastal waters of Ramses (now Alexandria) to experience a great cessation of water for approximately forty-five minutes prior to the enormous influx of the tidal wave caused from this eruption. It would also account for the low rumbling sound (a huge volcano several hundreds of miles away) of “God’s voice” from the heavens just before “Moses” parted the waves. This not only provides scientific evidence to the “parting of the waves” but fits into the Exodus time frame as well. This volcano would also have the predictable influences described as the plagues wrought on the Egyptians by Moses. Chance, fate or coincidence that the Hebrews and Moses stood on the shore at this time? We may never know, but for legends and sagas it certainly could be described as a “working of the god(s)”.

Now, as Moses and his band, some estimates suggest 20,000 others have calculated over 50,000 people, headed east into the Sinai Peninsula and then taking a southern route along the coast of the Gulf of Suez, there would have been much speculation by the people as to where to go and settle. This contention between the people and leaders was to carry on for nearly forty years before they had arrived far to the north and split into the twelve tribes in Canaan surrounding the Dead Sea.

Here again we are to take notice of the numerology as 3 and 10 were sacred numbers to those of ancient Hebrew belief, not twelve as was the number of divine Æsir gods. Had there not been an Aegean influence on Moses there would have been ten, not twelve, divisions of the Hebrew nation. Once more, older thinking was given new life.

Several months into the exodus, Moses is faced with uprising by the people and forced to give evidence of the truth in his leadership. We are told in Exodus 19 and 20 of the “Laws of God” and the “Ten Commandments”. Not surprisingly these laws and commandments are very similar in moral and ethical structure to those found in the Edda’s in general. We also see that Moses decrees that any breech of these laws are to be brought before the newly appointed judges of a court, instead of the usual practice of “rightness between men” (holmgang). If satisfaction is not gained there, then it shall be held over for an assembly (thing) though no one, at least in the scriptural account, challenged the court.

By biblical and secular accounts the exodus from Egypt was the major turning point in Jewish history. They established themselves not only as a “Nation of God – Yahweh”, but as the chosen people of God excluding all other races. By all accounts this not only insured Moses and Aaron as being the absolute authority on and of “God’s word”, but made the gentile (all non-Jew) subjacent to their authority as well.

In doing so this not only gave authority over the free will of men into the hands of a mere few, but also took away the personal connection with “God” as well. Here we can see a prime example of Moses’ noble upbringing in that he took it upon himself to determine what was “best” for “his” people. He now presided over the “rights” and “wrongs” (due his lofty position and education) of the Hebrews/Israelites and by authority made everyone’s “sins” a subject of public, instead of private, notoriety. Confession of sins is nothing new, even to the Jew, but the manner in which it is done now came from light into darkness. Instead of standing before your accuser, the transgression was now told in secret to the priest(s) and the mighty ones of the “Word” handled the public humiliation from there. This follows right into modern law and leads me to wonder how many lawyers would be so willing to condemn the truths of folks if they had to face sword and shield if the challenge of lie versus truth were still handled in the manner of the holmgang.

 

We not only see the difference in the reluctant nature (KJV-Exodus) of Moses to undergo his godly challenge of faith, but in the cowardly manner in which it manifested itself; hiding behind mystery and surrounding himself with sworn deputies to keep any whom would challenge him directly at bay. Whereas Ódhinn not only led his people in a great exodus of its own sort, but willingly did so and accepted all challenges with honor and glory. Ódhinn and the Æsir took challenges to heart, embraced the consequences of them and made sure that they made only themselves accountable for their actions. Well, everyone except Loki of course.

We can now be made aware that the history of the Æsir, though verbal in beginning nature, predates biblical tales, written by Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) by anywhere from one thousand to two thousand five hundred years. This history was also great enough to conceptually start a religion that would eventually spawn the greatest challenge to Ódhinist belief of all time; Christianity. This however, can also be viewed as one of many Ragnaroks of the period and throughout Nordic/Germanic history as well as the supreme challenge of the Self within Ódhinn.

 

 

 

Summation

The supreme message of Ódhinist belief is reflected in the words “Look within”. This theory of looking within ourselves to the great mysteries of the world was radical thinking whether 3100 BCE, 1250 BCE or 500 BCE. It wasn’t until such persons as Buddha, Socrates, Plato (also note the Greek (Thessalonian) – Asian connection and timeline) and later Jesus of Nazareth, that this inward line of thought, as to the human condition, was to manifest itself in Mediterranean and Asiatic thinking, though it had existed for millennia within the Teutonic races. Prior to this the belief, “gods and demons” were responsible for all ills and happiness to be had by mankind was the norm, except as is evident in Odhinist theology.

We know that this message is true. We understand that our education in the runes and the lore of our forefathers is the living of this great example of wisdom. To seek ourselves within our Self! Nowhere in our sagas are we told of the coercion of our beliefs on others, however coerced beliefs by the Christian dates to its inception. Certainly many Nordic/Germanic tribal wars were fought over territory but they were not Holy Wars. They were conflicts of right and wrong. If someone were to come and pitch a tent in your backyard today and claim the land as his or her own, I am certain not a one of us would hesitate to call the battle cry of encroachment.

Even the Viking raids that eventually came about began years earlier as trade routes and it was not until a wrong had been committed by deceit that the sacking began in Northumbria in 794 CE. It is my understanding that trade between the Anglo’s and the Danes had been going on for some time which later led to the Swedes and Norwegians continuing such dealings. The newer traders (Norwegian) unfortunately began dealings with the Anglo kingdoms that had suffered great material losses in service to the Church. Secular accounts state that between 775-860 CE so much gold and silver had been hoarded by the church, that the coins, and even silver bars, were mostly lead. Gold was virtually unseen except inside the holy walls of the Mother Church and the treasuries of kings, noblemen and lords. I am certain that having returned home to melt the foreign coins, received in trade, it would have infuriated any honest trader to find a thin layer of silver floating on a pot full of melted lead!

Here again the conventional thought on the historical aspect has always been in favor of the “good Christian” being the “victim” of barbaric hordes from the North. Not until current day (last 100 years) has the scrutiny of historical texts, being made available to academics at large, has this falsehood, and many others, been discovered. From the prosecution of gentiles in 10th century BCE to the witch-hunts of the 17th century America, the perceived, rather than factual, “danger” of the non-believer in Yahweh [ironically pronounce backwards is roughly ehway(z)]has been the substance behind the rage. In most cases it came down to the authority of the Church, not so much fearful that a handful of people would sway the masses, but that those individuals saw no need to bolster the coffers of the church by the mandates of tithing.

So in conclusion, the objective evidence towards the supposition of the dependent origins of Moses’ theosophy and the resulting history that followed may well be linked to that of Odhinist thought. The basis of this theory comes from much work in the lines of anthropology and sociology and the significance these disciplines provide as a supporting thesis to objective findings. I will summarize these facts with the following:

 

  1. We know, as fact, that the vast majority of adopted children, when told of their adoption– or even when not told- have an inherent Need to find their roots and family background. The Queen of Egypt “adopted” Moses.
  2. Once these adopted children make contact with their past, they have an insatiable urge to be a significant source of change (requiring much attention) within the familial structure. Moses didn’t know until he was an adult that he was an Israelite and as the “savior” of those in captivity was relegated much servitude, as was customary of the period, for doing so.
  3. Quite often, due to the intense devotion to research on the part of the adopted child (once becoming an adult) that the family learns many new things about the overall structure and lineage of the family. A great deal of Moses’ works in the scriptures deals with genetic lineage.
  4. A trait of all children is to emulate their parents or an ancestor of personal import. Though Moses was raised, housed and educated as Egyptian nobility, once he knew of his lineage to Abraham, it would have only been natural for him to emulate his (to the 27th) great grandfather. Abraham, @2100 BCE began what was to become the Jewish religion, again a thousand years after and directly in the path of the Trojan Migration. It is even conceivable that Abraham himself was a descendent of these migrants.
  5. There is much evidence to support the theory that a great migration (10,000 or more) did leave Troy 5100 years ago and they did find their way into Northern Europe and southern Scandinavia in a short period of time. Archaeological evidence finds pottery, beads, bracelets, broaches of similar make up and substances along this route that all date virtually to this same migration period.
  6. Given a +- factor of 50 years in carbon dating, it can be shown ( 5100 yrs. +- 50; 5125yrs. +- 50; 5150yrs. +-50 as dating the many items) that the items (5.) were distributed along this route over a very short period which also shows the appropriate timeline of such a venture of that period. Moving that many people, seasonal delays, food gathering and so on, two to five years would have been a quick journey over land to the new home of Ódhinn and his people.
  7. One source lends credibility to a sea route taken from the Aegean Sea, along the northern coast (southern Europe) of the Mediterranean, through the Straits of Gibraltar, up the coast line of Eastern Europe and finally ending up in the North (Njord’s) Sea. It can also be conceptualized that one part of the migration took to sea while the other part went by land. Though most likely purely coincidental, the two parties would eventually gather again in Denmark, Northern Germany and Southern Scandinavia. Here again making this journey across unknown waters, replenishments, the probable contact with coastal inhabitants and so forth would have made this trip take a considerable length of time.

 

 

Can we say our Germanic forefathers were slack in their duty to write down our history? Possibly so, but again we must refer to the All-Father in that he feared that Huginn (Thought) would not return to him, but even more so feared that Munnin (Memory) would not return. The Minni of our Teutonic history, though not indelibly scribed on paper until millennia after it happened, was a closeness of kin not found in history books. It was an interaction between parent and child that not only promoted family ties, but exercised the memories of parent as well. Verbal history creates the closeness to the events that book teaching falls very short of.

I know from my own experience that my parents were incapable of telling me my Nordic history for two reasons; 1) they were not told and 2) “everything you need to know” is written in books at school or in the Bible. So not only did their ancestors fail to keep the traditions of sagas alive, but, by being convinced of the great White Lie, they had no desire to seek Huginn, outside of foreign beliefs. The Bible would have us believe that only Jewish history is valuable to the world and all else was of little consequence. Because of the influence of organized religion on the scholarly world, especially up to the point of late 19th century schools, anything that may have contradicted this biblical history was kept from us. Even until just a few decades ago scholars could easily ostracize themselves from the academic community by seeking non-traditional knowledge. “Politically correct” thinking is not new! It spans millennia!

When I had the duty of teaching my son about the workings of the world, I would routinely have him read the prescribed material given to him by his school. We would then superimpose a timeline of what he wasn’t told over this knowledge to show a fuller and more accurate picture of what the whole world was like at a given point in history. This in its own small way kept open the door to the traditional aspects of verbal history. For instance, he wasn’t very much interested in WWII as one of his studies, until the verbal account of his Farfar (father’s father) being a part of the liberation of Dachau and many other stories of Farfar being an English/Scandinavian/German interpreter as part of his service related duties. As I recall he did particularly well on that test.

So if we take the relatively sparse Nordic/Germanic history of 5,000 years ago due its verbal nature, but superimpose the otherwise rich history of other peoples in close proximity and their written accounts, we find patterns much as those found in the mysterious workings of the runes. More can be learned by listening to our intuitive past if we but know how to “hear” and much more can be learned by carefully examining other cultures and “see” what is not there. Writing has always been a source of power but never more so than in the earliest centuries of its inception. With this power, cultures could be absorbed and obliterated without so much as a single sword being drawn, unless of course the mightier aspects of munnin are taken into account.

Political motivations and political correctness have been the “brown noser’s” way since the dawn of mankind. Few people have the rightness, wisdom or might to give up their comfortable existence for the sake of a few virtues that makes one a good person but ever so slight in the purse. Only a distinct few have the courage truth and honor to willingly seek this path. Only those exceptional few that truly understands we come from an inward place, far, far away.

 

Now, for those who may read this thesis and feel it is an attempt to immortalize Ódhinn, I will again refer to Snorri’s remark about who is to believe or not believe. If one reads this from the Odian standpoint, I hope they will not make this error. I have attempted to review the concepts of mortal Ódhinn, (or whatever name that person was given in actuality) Thor’s son, and place that in a historical perspective and timeframe. When I think of the timeless Ódhinn, who by saga, had an aspect son Thor, the distinction should be very clear. It is the same process of gleaning facts, from the tele-evangelist or historical record.

 

What I find to be the most intrinsic component of Odian belief, is that the Àsatrù Folk, value above all else the individual expression of their beliefs rather than subscribing to the sheep mentality that everyone must believe, exactly, precisely, the same way or be condemned to Hel for it. I know my spiritual journey through the Troth may not conform to everyone else’s understanding of things, but how wonderful we do not have to sit and listen to the same rhetoric and redundancy that other beliefs do!

Bibliography:

Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia – Compton’s New Media, Inc. ©1995

The Disciple’s Study Bible – Holman Bible Publishers ©1988

Anthropology – E. Adamson Hoebel – McGraw-Hill Book Company ©1966

Sociology of the Family – Frederick Duncan, Ph.D., Avery & Holmes ©1986

Edda – Snorri Sturluson, tr. Anthony Faulkes– Everyman ©1987 ©1998

Poetic Edda – tr. Lee M. Hollander –University of Texas Press ©1962 ©1999

Egypt: Land of the Pharaohs – Time-Life ©1992

Runelore: A Handbook of Esoteric Runology – Edred Thorsson – Weiser ©1987

Ancient Northern Europe – E.V. Swanson – Bastelle © 1963

 

 

(1) All four descriptions –The Disciple’s Study Bible – Holman Bible Publishers ©1988

(2) Skaldskparmal

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